WF-IoT 2014 Videos

View videos from the 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT)
6-8 March 2014, Seoul, Korea

Shih-Chang Huang, National Formosa University, Taiwan; Hong-Yi Chang, National Chiayi University, Taiwan; Jen-Yi Pan, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan

This session discusses two methods for dispatching sensors to gather data in the rechargeable wireless mobile sensor networks. Sensors are random deployed and move to the anchoring locations for gathering data. Sensors can restore their energy at the recharging dock. In the first method, each anchoring location is assigned at least one sensor. The random deployed sensors move to them. One sensor monitors the environment, and the others become the backup sensors. The backup sensors replace the active one when its energy exhausts so that the monitoring task can be continued. In the second method, the sensor's mobile ability is utilized. All backup sensors are collected in the recharging docks. When a sensor in an anchoring location runs out of energy, one of the sensors in the recharging dock will move to replace it. The simulation results show that utilizing the mobile ability for dispatching high-energy sensors to replace the low-energy ones can prolong the network operation and save more remaining covered grids after time passes.

Choi Look Law, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Indoor environments are typically complex wireless propagation channels with numerous multi-paths created by closely spaced scattering object. The ability to resolve these multi-paths is very important for good ranging resolution and positioning accuracy. Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) is a promising technology to fulfill these usage requirements in indoor cluttered environment. A portable low-power IR-UWB system for indoor channel characterization and time of arrival ranging measurements is presented in this paper. The system consists of battery powered transmitters and a four channel receiver array system powered from the USB port of a notebook computer. A novel repetitive coding and stroboscopic sampling technique is used to reduce power consumption while maintaining precise ranging using time of arrival based technique. The repetitive coding also enables data communication capability through the same wireless channel. Power saving and precision ranging is achieved by optimization of the circuit design for ultra short pulses as well as system architecture and operation. The transmitted pulse is captured by low-cost energy-detection receivers with analogue to digital converters running at around 3.2MHz rate. Measurement in a 20m×20m typical indoor environment is currently being conducted and results should be ready in the final paper.

Jin Mitsugi (Keio University, Japan); Yuki Sato (Keio University, Japan); Miyuki Ozawa (Keio University, Japan); Shigeya Suzuki (Keio University, Japan)

This session proposes a device and capability discovery protocol with integrated Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) and Object Naming Service (ONS). The protocol automatically establishes a list of available devices -- sensors, actuators and electronic apparatus -- in our home. Since each device is identified with a globally unique Electronic Product Code (EPC) in the protocol, the capability of discovered device can be obtained through ONS without implementing a complex capability description exchange protocol in the device. The up-to-dated list of all the available devices facilitates the compositions of smart home applications. This paper overviews the device and capability discovery protocol. Illustrative smart home applications in our campus enabled by the proposed protocol are also reported.

Shunsuke Fujita, Saitama University, Japan; Takaaki Hasegawa, Saitama University, Japan; Tetsuya Manabe, Saitama University, Japan

This session describes the virtual planning office "VPO" from the viewpoint of the quality of spatial comfort "QoSC" toward supplying attractive products for consumers, and constructs a prototype of the VPO system. In addition, the validity of the actual products' effects the VPO focuses on is verified through the prototype. The VPO is a new concept that sends consumers' preference on actual products to suppliers. The VPO has two agents. One agent is the ubiquitous clerk to extract consumers' preference on actual products in a shop.

Hoan Suk Choi, Hanbat National University, Korea; Jun-Young Lee, Hanbat National University, Korea; Na-Ri Yang, Hanbat National University, Korea; Woo-Seop Rhee, Hanbat National University, Korea

The existing service mash-up environment enables user to create context aware services. It is able to build services by recombining ready-made building blocks and connection operations. But a non-technical user is difficult to create context aware service. Because, they don't know principles of service offering (e.g., service platform architecture, concept of ontology, criteria of context, required sensor type and etc.) To solve this problem, we propose the user-centric service environment. It consists of service mash-up process and the web-based service composition user interface. The user can create target context aware service through easily step-by-step progress. Also, we propose the ontology based semantic sensor data processing. It removes heterogeneity of sensor data and processes the object data to the context information.

Giuseppe Colistra, University of Cagliari, Italy; Virginia Pilloni, University of Cagliari, Italy; Luigi Atzori (University of Cagliari, Italy)

Some key features of the end-systems impact on the way communications happen within the IoT: available objects' resources are limited, different objects may provide the same information (e.g. sense the same physical measure), the number of nodes in the IoT is quickly overcoming the number of Internet hosts with greater reliability issues. This entails for a new paradigm of communication with respect to those characterizing the traditional Internet. Before providing the required information about the physical world, objects coordinate with the other objects in groups and provide a unified service to the external world (the application that requires the service), with the intent to distribute the load of the requested services according to specific community defined rules, which could be: lifetime extension, QoS (Quality of Service) maximization, reward maximization, or others. In this paper other than describing the characteristics of this new communication paradigm and challenges it is called to address, we also propose a first solution for its implementation that relies on a distributed optimization protocol based on the consensus algorithm. Results of simulations and real experiments are also presented that show the viability in implementing the new communication model in a distributed way.

Roch Glitho, Concordia University, Canada; Carla Mouradian, Concordia University, Canada; Fatima Zahra Errounda, Concordia University, Canada; Fatna Belqasmi, Concordia University, Canada

Robotic applications are becoming ubiquitous. They are widely used in several areas (e.g., healthcare, disaster management, and manufacturing). However, their provisioning still faces several challenges such as cost and resource usage efficiency. Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm that may aid in tackling these challenges. It has three main facets: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). This paper focuses on the IaaS aspects of robotic applications as cloud computing services. It proposes an architecture that enables cost efficiency through virtualization and dynamic task delegation to robots, including robots that might belong to other clouds. Overlays and RESTful Web services are used as cornerstones. A prototype is built using LEGO Mindstorms NXT as the robotic platform, and JXTA as the overlay middleware. Related work is reviewed, the functional entities and interfaces of the architecture are described, and the prototype architecture is presented along with the implemented scenario.

Son N. Han, Institut Mines-Telecom, Telecom SudParis, France; Gyu Myoung Lee, Institut TELECOM, TELECOM SudParis, France; Noel Crespi, Institut Mines-Télécom, Télécom SudParis, France; Van Luong Nguyen, Institut Mines-Telecom, Telecom Sudparis, France; Heo Kyoungwoo, ETRI, Korea; Mihaela Brut, Theresis, Thales Services S.A., France; Patrick Gatellier, Theresis, Thales Services S.A., France

The OASIS standard Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS) enables the use of Web services on smart and resource-constrained devices, which are the cornerstones of the Internet of Things (IoT). DPWS sees a perspective of being able to build service-oriented and event-driven IoT applications on top of these devices with secure Web service capabilities and a seamless integration into existing World Wide Web infrastructure. We introduce DPWSim, a simulation toolkit to support the development of such applications. DPWSim allows developers to prototype, develop, and test IoT applications using the DPWS technology without the presence of physical devices. It also can be used for the collaboration between manufacturers, developers, and designers during the new product development process.

Ulf Kulau, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany; Felix Büsching, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany; Lars C Wolf, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany

The energy consumption of electric circuits depends on the applied voltage level. This is used by dynamic voltage scaling approaches where the voltage is lowered up to a datasheet specified level. To reduce the energy consumption even further, it would be possible to power the electric circuits below the specified voltage levels. Considering Wireless Sensor Nodes, this 'undervolting' would save a substantial amount of energy and, hence, would lead to a significant longer lifetime of nodes and networks. Contrariwise, operating processors or nodes outside their specifications adds some extra incertitude to the system. In this paper, we analyze the effects of undervolting for a typical wireless sensor node in theory and practice. A prototype implementation is used to characterize the influence of lower-than-recommended voltage levels on the MCU. In addition, the impact of different temperatures is considered as well as the behavior of an undervolted transceiver unit and, therefore, the effects on the wireless communication. While classical computer applications may contain too many hazards to outweigh the improved energy consumption when using undervolting, we show that it is particularly suitable for WSNs with a huge potential of saving energy and the opportunity of novel power management approaches on every layer.

Chia-Hao Hsu, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Chih-Ting Lin, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Hui Ping Tserng, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Jen-Yu Han, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Internet-of-Thing (IoT) has been identified as one of the next generation technologies from different aspects. Among different technologies for IoT, wireless-sensor-network (WSN) is one of key technologies to be developed. To demonstrate WSN capabilities in applications, this work developed self-developed sensor node (Super-Node) and applied the device into a on-field structure health monitoring (SHM) task. The developed WSN system achieved requirements of SHM applications, i.e. 128Hz sampling rate with tri-axial acceleration data within one sensor node. By acquired data, the developed system can make the predication of structure status. In addition, a local-data- processing node and algorithm was also implemented to promote usability of WSN system in SHM applications. With Huffman code implemented, the wireless transmission payload was reduced by 60% and the node capacity can be increased by 3 times. This work not only demonstrated the capability of WSN technologies in on-field SHM applications but also provided a better solution for IoT development.

Swaytha Sasidharan, Create-Net & Create-Net, Italy; Andrey Somov, CREATE-NET, Italy; Abdur Rahim, CREATE-NET, Italy; Raffaele Giaffreda, Create-Net, Italy

In the domain of Internet of Things (IoT), applications are modeled to understand and react based on existing contextual and situational parameters. This work implements a management flow for the abstraction of Real World Objects (RWOs) and virtual composition of those objects to provide IoT services. We also present a real world knowledge model that aggregates constraints defining a situation, which is then used to detect and anticipate future potential situations. It is implemented based on reasoning and machine learning mechanisms. This work showcases a prototype implementation of the architectural framework in a smart home scenario, targeting two functionalities: actuation and automation based on the imposed constraints and thereby responding to situations and also adapting to the user behavior. It thus provides a productive integration of heterogeneous devices, IoT platforms, and cognitive technologies to improve the services provided to the user.

Sylvain Cherrier, Université Paris-Est, France; Yacine Ghamri-Doudane, University of la Rochelle, France; Stephane Lohier, University of Paris-Est, France; Gilles Roussel, Université Paris-Est, France

Facilitating the creation of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is a major concern to increase its development. D-LITe, our previous work, is a framework for that purpose. In D-LITe, Objects are considered as part of a whole application. They offer a REST web service that describes Object capabilities, receives the logic to be executed, and interacts with other stakeholders. Then, the complete application is seen as a choreography dynamically deployed on various objects. But the main issue of choreographies is the loss of coherence. Because of their unreliability, some networks used in IoT may introduce de-synchronization between Objects, leading to errors and failures. In this paper, we propose a solution to re-introduce coherence in the application, in order to keep the advantages of choreography while dealing with this main issue. An overlay of logical check-points at the application layer defines links between the coherent states of a set of objects and triggers re-synchronization messages. Correcting statements are thus spread through the network, which enables fault recovery in Choreographies. This paper ends with a comparison between the checking cost and the reliability improvement.

Vishwa Goudar, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; James B Wendt, UCLA, USA; Miodrag Potkonjak, University of California at Los Angeles, USA; Zhi Ren, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; Paul Brochu, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; Qibing Pei, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

The proliferation of mobile ubiquitous devices faces a hurdle in the form of high resource consumption rates that restrict longevity. Several low-power devices and application designs and optimization techniques have been proposed. Simultaneously, energy harvesting technologies are increasingly being viewed as a complementary technique to drive down resource consumption rates and even achieve self-sustenance. Towards this end, we propose a foot-strike powered harvester array composed of a novel high-energy density material called Dielectric Elastomers. To compensate for their control parameter sensitivity, we propose an adaptive closed-loop control algorithm based on general characteristics of human gait. From experimentally collected datasets of human plantar pressure and detailed characterization of DE behavior, we show that our algorithm yields enough accuracy to produce upwards of 85\% of the maximum energy harvestable by the DE array. We also show that, in many cases, this is sufficient to fully drive low-power mobile ubiquitous applications.

Thejaswini M, IIT Hyderabad, India; Pachamuthu Rajalakshmi, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India; Uday B Desai, IIT Hyderabad, India

Mobile phones or smart phones equipped with different communication technologies and sensors have become pervasive application development platform for opportunistic and human-centric sensing. Optimization of battery energy consumption and opportunistic sensing coverage are important issues under mobile phone sensing. This paper proposes a simple sampling algorithm based on human-walk velocity for mobile phone sensing. We analyze the impact of human-walk velocity on battery energy consumption and spatial coverage for mobile phone sensing by considering general regular sampling of sensors and proposed sampling method. When Levy walk mobility parameter = 1, the proposed sampling algorithm shows better performance in terms of both spatial coverage and reduction of battery energy consumption for mobile phone sensing activity.

Moataz Youssef, Cairo University & VALEO, Egypt; Khaled Elsayed, Cairo University, Egypt; Ahmed Zahran, Nile University, Egypt

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) face several challenges in field deployments due to strict limitations in nodes hardware capabilities and battery capacities. In addition, several environmental factors should be considered while designing or testing a WSN. Energy-efficient operation is one of the prominent challenges for successful deployment of WSN's. In this paper, we consider energy-efficient operation of WSN nodes implementation based on the Contiki real-time operating system. We inspect the effect of applying spatial configuration for the radio duty-cycle (RDC) frequencies of WSN nodes running ContikiMAC. We also propose two temporal update mechanisms namely: a distributed mechanism in which a WSN sink node collects network-wide statistics and broadcasts a threshold value to the nodes to adjust their duty cycles and an autonomous mechanism in which each node individually updates its duty-cycle based on its battery capacity level. Our simulation results show significant gains in network life time while maintaining network delivery ratio at the same level compared with static schemes.

Alessandro Nacci, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; Giovanni Bettinazzi, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; Christian Pilato, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; Vincenzo Rana, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; Marco D Santambrogio, MIT & Politecnico di Milano, USA; Donatella Sciuto, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

The efficient energy management of buildings is nowadays a crucial point to move toward a sustainable planet. Unfortunately, the design of smart buildings able to optimize their energy consumption is a quite complex task. Since this exploration cannot be performed on the field, simulation methodologies are usually adopted to study the behavior of buildings and their energy sustainability during the design phase. This paper proposes a simulation framework based on SystemC to easily evaluate different policies to control the energy consumption of a smart space. In particular, SystemC makes it possible to obtain a flexible representation of the system, allowing the designer to easily evaluate different configurations of appliances and policies, and it directly works with the commonly-used C programming language.

Speaker: Alessandro A. Nacci
Authors: Luciano Baresi, Sam Guinea, Adnan Shahzada from Politecnico Di Milano, Italy


Markus Jung, Esad Hajdarevic, and Wolfgang Kastner, Institute of Computer Aided Information Automation Group, Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Antonio Jara, L’Institut Informatique de Gestion Haute Ecole Specialisee de Suisse occidentale, Switzerland


Roberto Manione, Media on Line, Italy

Discusses the development of IoT devices.

Minseok Jeon, Dept. Computer Science, Yonsei University, Korea