Article 1

Internet of Things and the 5th Generation Mobile Network

Roberto Minerva

The definition of the next generation of mobile networks is at a very preliminary stage and there is no consistent and shared view about its architecture and technical aspects. In this early stage it is important to define the goals and requirements of the future infrastructure. A very detailed set of requirements has been put forward from the perspective of telecom operators.

 


Article 2

oneM2M: A Bridge over IoT Waters

Omar Elloumi

The development of Machine to Machine (M2M) communications and the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuing at pace. The two are intrinsically linked and depending on your definition, M2M is basically becoming acknowledged as the communications layer of the IoT. The amount of investment into this sector is reaching astonishing proportions. According to a recent announcement by IDC, the internet of things market will grow globally from approximately 655.8 billion USD in 2014 to 1.7 trillion USD in 2020. McKinsey recently predicted that the total economic impact of the IoT could be as much as 11.1 trillion USD per year by 2025.

 


Article 3

IoT is More Than Just Connecting Devices: The OpenIoT Stack Explained

Martin Serrano and John Soldatos

The way the Internet of Things (IoT) has evolved technologically in the last years and the level of expected IoT services immersion have impacted daily aspects of people's lives. A clear example where IoT has influenced big changes is in the cities. Today there are cities technologically equipped and socially organized in a way that the generation and deployment of better citizen services and solutions are more rapidly adopted (e.g. Smart Cities).

 


Article 4

Understanding IPv6's Potential for IoT: The IoT6 Research Project

Sébastien Ziegler, Peter Kirstein, Latif Ladid, Antonio Skarmeta and Antonio Jara

The conclusions presented in our previous article (The Case for IPv6 as an Enabler of the Internet of Things) were the result of a three-year project dubbed IoT6, supported by the European Commission. Though the main outcomes of the project are the recommendations on exploiting IPv6's features presented in our first article, we thought it useful and informative to provide context for how we arrived at those recommendations, discuss related findings and mention representative use cases.

 

 

This Month's Contributors

Roberto Minerva holds a PhD in Computer Science and Telecommunications from Telecom Sud Paris, France, and a Master Degree in Computer Science from Bari University, Italy.
Read More >>

Dr. Omar Elloumi is Head of M2M and Smart Grid standards within Alcatel-Lucent CTO.
Read More >>

Martin Serrano is an ICT expert with more than 12 years experience in industry and applied research, at the technical and management levels, within a wide range of Pan-European international collaborative research Projects and also with experience on large scale Integrated Platforms experimentation.
Read More >>

John Soldatos is with Athens Information Technology, where he is currently an Associate Professor. He has technically participated in a number of research projects, which were co-funded by the EU.
Read More >>

Sébastien Ziegler is the founder and Director of Mandat International, a foundation based in Geneva with special consultative status to the UN and a member of the International Telecommunication Union.
Read More >>

Peter Kirstein is Professor of Computer Communications Systems at University College London. He is a fellow of many professional bodies including the Royal Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Science, US National Academy of Engineering.
Read More >>

Latif Ladid holds the following positions: Founder & President, IPv6 FORUM; Founder & Chair, 5G World Alliance; Chair, ETSI IP6 ISG; Chair, IEEE ComSoc 5G MWI & IoT subTC; Emeritus Trustee, Internet Society; Board Member IPv6 Ready & Enabled Logos Program.
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Antonio F. Skarmeta received the M.S. degree in Computer Science from the University of Granada and B.S. (Hons.) and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from the University of Murcia, Spain.
Read More >>

Antonio Jara has received two Master Sciences (Hons. – valedictorian) degrees: a Master in Business Administration – MBA (Hons), and PhD (Cum Laude). He is especially focused on the design and development of new protocols for security and mobility for the Internet of things, the topic of his Ph.D.
Read More >>

 

Contributions Welcomed
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Would you like more information? Have any questions? Please contact:

Raffaele Giaffreda, Editor-in-Chief
raffaele.giaffreda@create-net.org

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stuartsharrock@ieee.org

 

About the IoT eNewsletter

The IEEE Internet of Things (IoT) eNewsletter is a bi-monthly online publication that features practical and timely technical information and forward-looking commentary on IoT developments and deployments around the world. Designed to bring clarity to global IoT-related activities and developments and foster greater understanding and collaboration between diverse stakeholders, the IEEE IoT eNewsletter provides a broad view by bringing together diverse experts, thought leaders, and decision-makers to exchange information and discuss IoT-related issues.

Understanding IPv6's Potential for IoT: The IoT6 Research Project

Sébastien Ziegler, Peter Kirstein, Latif Ladid, Antonio Skarmeta and Antonio Jara
September 8, 2015

 

The conclusions presented in our previous article (The Case for IPv6 as an Enabler of the Internet of Things) were the result of a three-year project dubbed IoT6, supported by the European Commission. Though the main outcomes of the project are the recommendations on exploiting IPv6's features presented in our first article, we thought it useful and informative to provide context for how we arrived at those recommendations, discuss related findings and mention representative use cases.

The IoT6 project really focused on exploiting the potential of IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) and related standards such as 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks), CoRE (Constrained RESTful Environments), COAP (Constrained Application Protocol), etc., to overcome current shortcomings and fragmentation in the development of the Internet of Things (IoT).

The project's main objectives were to research, design and develop a highly scalable, IPv6-based, service-oriented architecture to achieve interoperability, mobility, cloud computing integration and intelligence distribution among heterogeneous smart things, components, applications and services.

This subject's potential has been researched by exploring innovative forms of interactions such as:

  • Information and intelligence distribution;
  • Multi-protocol interoperability with and among heterogeneous devices;
  • Use of identifiers in conjunction with IoT devices and IPv6;
  • Device mobility and mobile phone networks integration, to provide ubiquitous access and seamless communication;
  • Cloud computing integration with Software as a Service (SaaS);
  • IPv6 – Smart Things Information Services (STIS) innovative interactions.

Designing an IPv6-based architecture

The IoT6 project designed and tested a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) based on IPv6 to integrate heterogeneous IoT components.

The project also developed a software and communication stack based on IPv6/6LoWPAN at the network layer, combined with CoAP/HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) and oBIX (Open Building Information Xchange), which has been deployed in four environments: Contiki-motes, OSGi-Gateway, Digcovery-server and Mobile-phone.

These implementations provide the functionalities of IPv6 connectivity and open service layer. Both implementations support IoT6 interoperability in heterogeneous networks such as wireless sensor devices or legacy technologies, including BACnet and KNX. (BACnet is a data communication protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks. KNX is a standardized, OSI-based network communications protocol for "smart" buildings.)

The IoT6 open service layer is based on a scalable architecture that supports discovering, registering and looking-up services and resources of heterogeneous and ubiquitous IoT devices. For the architecture, we developed four main elements: global Digcovery, local Digrectory, smart object and mobile Digcovery. Global Digcovery is a centralized platform that enables any IoT client to look up IoT resources and services through standard interfaces such as HTTP and CoAP.

In a local domain, each Digrectory registers fine-grained descriptions of the IoT resources and services following the scalable DNS (Domain Name System) infrastructure to support distributed local queries. The smart object implementation enables the autonomous registration and M2M (machine-to-machine) access of resources and services available from IoT devices using mDNS and CoAP protocols, respectively. (mDNS stands for the multicast Domain Name System, which resolves host names to IP addresses within small networks that don’t include a local name server.)

The IoT6 project also implemented and provided other transversal functionalities such as semantic description, context-aware search and communication interfaces to achieve a unifying architecture. First, we provided a homogeneous semantic description based on CoAP links, oBIX data format and JSON message structure to support interoperability in heterogeneous IoT domains. Second, we integrated the MongoDB (an open-source document database) search engine in the proposed architecture to support a scalable context-aware look-up based on geo-location, domain and type of resources. Third, we provided the communication interfaces to enable interoperability between the proposed elements with heterogeneous IoT things and clients.

The proposed architecture is compatible with existing protocols based on standardized technologies such as IPv6 and DNS. Moreover, the architecture supports the integration of heterogeneous IoT devices including 802.15.4 sensors, RFID tags, building actuators and mobile phones. The architecture also provides an open service layer to interact with end-user applications through standardized interfaces such as web services (HTTP), and constrained applications (CoAP).

Legacy protocol integration

The IoT6 project researched the potential of IPv6 addresses as identifiers for heterogeneous IoT devices. It demonstrated that part of the address space associated with each routable IPv6 address could be used to address non-IP end devices from legacy deployments, such as KNX and BACnet. This mechanism was pioneered by UDG, and further specified and fine-tuned by IoT6. UDG is an IPv6-based multi-protocol control and monitoring system using IPv6 as a common identifier for devices using legacy protocols.

The project also developed a lightweight module named IoTSys to ease the integration of legacy protocol-driven devices into IPv6 for capillary integration.

UDG has been used by the IoT6 project to integrate heterogeneous IoT devices into the IoT6 architecture, enabling efficient and large scale integration of heterogeneous pilot deployments, including several smart buildings and the smart city of Santander. The benefit of an all-IPv6 integration simplified the deployment and management of these distributed networks of heterogeneous IoT.

Identifier integration

The project participants realized that the identification mechanism could be extended in a very powerful way by treating each end device as a digital object, with its own (one or more) Identifiers. Each Identifier can be associated with its own attributes and there may be several different attributes for the same device used by different application providers.

Access to both the identifiers and to their attributes can require authorization via strong authentication. In our IoT6 project we showed how IPv6 could be combined with identification solutions such as Handle Digital Object Identification – DOI (http://handle.net/). It could be used to assist security, by storing security and authentication tokens in the attribute store of the information system. The potentially complex project of restricting access to end-devices to authorized processes can then be resolved in a proxy manner, removing the need to put too much complexity in the end-devices. The handle records could be used to provide role-based descriptions of a device, since the end-devices (smart objects) could be provided with several application-specific identities (including IPv6 address). Because processes and devices have similar identifier characteristics, the attributes can include the identifier prescribing the access process for a device. Some of these advantages were demonstrated in the implementation by using the Handle existing Identifier-resolution system.

Use cases

IoT6 has been tested in different use-cases such as building automation and smart office. Its versatility has allowed integrating heterogeneous technologies for automation in building and homes such as BACnet, Z-Wave, ZigBee, Bluetooth, X10, Konnex, at the same time that has integrated other technologies such as Kinnect, Google Glass, and personal devices. Finally, a vertical integration with backend systems for business process development and events analysis has been also demonstrated. Therefore, the use-cases have demonstrated the versatility in terms of physical and cybernetic platforms that can be integrated with the developed SOA in IoT6.

Lessons learned

After three years of intensive research on IPv6 and IoT, our IoT6 project reached several conclusions.

  • IPv6 is a strategic enabler for IoT scalability, manageability and interoperability. We draw this conclusion from the fact that IPv6 is a well-tested technology, developed from the lessons learned from 30 years' experience with a continuously growing internet that has been based on IPv4.
  • IPv6 is a convenient multi-systems and cross-domain integrator. This conclusion is based on the fact that IPv6 abstracts from the physical and medium layer into a common, homogenous networking layer. This makes IPv6 cross-domain and global, a quality that is not undermined by the multiple technologies being used at the medium level.
  • IPv6 – IoT integration is logical and increasing. The foregoing points, in conjunction with the IPv6 adoption curve presented in our previous article, provide a logical basis for the use of IPv6 for IoT. No alternative currently provides the scalability, manageability and interoperability that IPv6 does for IoT.
  • IPv6 adoption is accelerating, particularly in several Asian, European and South American countries, thus its momentum and unique qualities make it suitable as a global solution.
  • For large deployments with multiple applications providers, there is currently no viable alternative to IPv6. Moreover, identifier-based systems will greatly ease operational security. This point is underscored by the emergence of Future Internet architecture, where identification and location spaces are split; IPv6 continues to be considered as the reference technology for location. To be fair, other technologies are emerging as reference technologies for identification, in order to bring additional benefits to multi-homing, mobility and security. The actual adoption of those alternative, reference technologies, however, remains limited.
  • A need for global IoT standards enabling cross-domain interoperability is growing. Based on the emergence of 6LoWPAN, GLowBAL IP, Bluetooth Smart 4.2 with Internet Protocol support, ZigBee IP, etc., global IoT standards are likely to be IPv6-based. Also, the World Wide Web is based on an IP protocol, which suggests the solution for IoT will also be IP-based. IPv6 is the logical extension of the IP protocols that enable the current WWW.

Conclusion

IPv6 meets several fundamental criteria for driving IoT development. It has an open and scalable architecture. It exists today and is being adopted for mobile networks and applications at an accelerating rate. It provides the means to deploy both centralized networks (intranets) and distributed networks (internet). It can handle all types of traffic. It interoperates with most if not all available industry standard network links. Open standardization processes exist at established standards bodies.

IPv6 still needs research and development efforts on security and privacy. Work is needed for IPv6 to overcome address translation limitations. A transition model for moving from IPv4 to IPv6 remains to be worked out. Once these hurdles are addressed, IPv6 will need to be adopted by governments to provide leadership and economies of scale to spur greater adoption. IPv6 is not the perfect solution, but it represents the "art of the possible" for IoT.

 


 

Sebastien ZieglerSébastien Ziegler is the founder and Director of Mandat International, a foundation based in Geneva with special consultative status to the UN and a member of the International Telecommunication Union. He graduated in international relations at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, followed by a Master in Environment, an MBA in international administration (HEC Geneva), and complementary executive courses at Harvard Business School, Stanford University, UC Berkeley and EPFL. Sébastien founded two foundations, as well as two ICT-related SMEs and several organizations, including ICT-related alliances. He is Vice President of the IoT Forum and Vice Chair of the IEEE ComSoc Subcommittee on the IoT. He initiated several national and international research projects in the area of ICT, with a focus on Internet of Things, IPv6, multiprotocol interoperability and crowdsourcing. He initiated and coordinates several European research projects on IoT, including IoT6 (www.iot6.eu), IoT Lab (www.iotlab.eu) on IoT and crowdsourcing, and Privacy Flag on privacy and personal data protection.

 

Peter KirsteinPeter Kirstein is Professor of Computer Communications Systems at University College London. He is a fellow of many professional bodies including the Royal Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Science, US National Academy of Engineering. He has received many awards including the Commander of the British Empire, SIGCOMM, Postel, Lifetime achievement of Royal Academy of Engineering and Marconi.
Peter has led many projects in computer networks, communications and applications – both National and EC – included IPv6 activities in public safety, videoconferencing, security and sensor networking. He led the Networking Work-packages in both U2010 and IoT6.

 

Latif LadidLatif Ladid holds the following positions: Founder & President, IPv6 FORUM; Founder & Chair, 5G World Alliance; Chair, ETSI IP6 ISG; Chair, IEEE ComSoc 5G MWI & IoT subTC; Emeritus Trustee, Internet Society; Board Member IPv6 Ready & Enabled Logos Program. He is a Research Fellow at the University of Luxembourg on multiple European Commission Next Generation Technologies IST Projects. He is also Board Member of 3GPP PCG (www.3gpp.org), member of UN Strategy Council, and member of the Future Internet Forum EU Member States (representing Luxembourg).

 

Antonio SkarmetaAntonio F. Skarmeta received the M.S. degree in Computer Science from the University of Granada and B.S. (Hons.) and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from the University of Murcia, Spain. Since 2009 he is a Full Professor at the Computer Science department of the University of Murcia. Antonio Skarmeta has worked on different research projects in the national and international area in the networking, security and IoT areas, such as Seinit, Deserec, Enable, Daidalos, SWIFT, IoT6, SMARTIE and SocIOtal. He has published over 90 international papers and is a member of several program committees. He has also participated in several standardization activities being co-author of some drafts at the IETF.

 

Antonio JaraAntonio Jara has received two Master Sciences (Hons. – valedictorian) degrees: a Master in Business Administration – MBA (Hons), and PhD (Cum Laude). He is especially focused on the design and development of new protocols for security and mobility for the Internet of things, the topic of his Ph.D. He is currently working on IPv6 technologies for the Internet of Things in projects such as IoT6, and also Big Data and Knowledge Engineering for Smart Cities in collaboration with projects such as SmartSantander.
Antonio has published over 80 international papers about the Internet of Things and holds one patent in the Internet of Things area. His specialties are: Internet of Things, IPv6, Future Internet, e-health, AAL, healthcare, 6LoWPAN, RFID, Bluetooth Low Energy, IoT6, and security. Antonio is interested in developing new proposals for H2020 in the areas of IoT, Big Data, mHealth, IPv6, SDN and User Experiences.

 

 

IoT is More Than Just Connecting Devices: The OpenIoT Stack Explained

Martin Serrano and John Soldatos
September 8, 2015

 

The way the Internet of Things (IoT) has evolved technologically in the last years and the level of expected IoT services immersion have impacted daily aspects of people's lives. A clear example where IoT has influenced big changes is in the cities. Today there are cities technologically equipped and socially organized in a way that the generation and deployment of better citizen services and solutions are more rapidly adopted (e.g. Smart Cities).

Today citizens have more sensed-enabled services and a greater awareness of them [1]. If the operation of a city, for example, relies on sensor-based systems and their collected data services its citizens have a better reference of what is happening in the city by means of "smart city" indicators. In other words the Internet of Things is the instrument towards enabling a full sensor-enabled and IoT services life experience. IoT is already considered the scientific evolution of the internet that comes with a technology deployment wave of connected devices.

The OpenIoT Stack

The Internet of Things has evolved too fast in recent years and the term IoT usually refers, erroneously, only to device capacity and the way connected devices called "objects" or "things" interact with each other and with a gateway. However there are more than just devices and their performance in the IoT, even for devices with good computing capacity such as smartphones, the information collected surpasses the limits of their constrained environment in terms of processing capacity and storage. The support that information systems and the IoT service infrastructure (cloud) can provide for using that information are therefore part of the same Internet of Things paradigm. The elements described in the so called “OpenIoT Stack” are part of a process with relations and interactions for the IoT landscape.

The OpenIoT stack [2] has been designed in the context of IoT systems and cloud infrastructures. It is the methodology that defines and establishes the relations between the operations and the role that "things" can play in the whole IoT system(s), likewise it represents the functionality or services that applications are able to provide and support. Intermediate functions and methods are also defined as part of an identified middle/mediation process. The stack for service delivery models and interoperability for the Internet of Things is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Figure 1: IoT stack for service delivery and interoperability

The main characteristics and functional layers of the IoT Stack rely on the capacities of an IoT system to allocate functions and operations accordingly across those layers. From the Physical Device Level where raw data formats are handled and collected, identified and handled seamlessly to a more organised virtualized architecture with a well-defined format-driven information system that (as much as possible) follows standards supporting applications and enabling services at a more high business level. At this business level of the IoT Stack the general interoperability process relies more on "intelligence" supported by information services, and as result of monitoring, statistical and analytical processes [3] rather than physical device capacity. In between there are some layers, between them; there is a Sensor Middleware Level for data transformation and adaptation. Semantic Level data management tools are provided to query information and offer intermediate access from application to data by means of linked data and at the Application Level data formal representations reduce the burden of performing common aggregation. At the Business Level also provisioning and visualizations for end users are offered as a service.

The OpenIoT Architecture

The emerging multiple IoT systems demand to have convergence platforms able to mediate between all the IoT data and solutions. OpenIoT was incepted in 2010 with the main goal of converging sensor data systems using cloud infrastructures with IoT applications in a way that ensures re-usability, repurposing and interoperability of diverse services and sensor data sets known also as streams (typically a stream is defined as a large dynamic set of information). OpenIoT focuses on the IoT Data Stream management and interoperability of sensor platforms by using cloud computing integration [6]. OpenIoT is a blueprint implemented sensor platform of the IoT Stack.

The main features of OpenIoT address some needs in principle to: (A) ensure semantic interoperability of diverse IoT data services and sensor data streams in the cloud; (B) maintain and support about the provided solutions for relating sensor-data sets (i.e. Linked Sensor Data); (C) maintain the open source project, that provides the blueprint implementation for semantically interoperable IoT cloud applications using semantics; (D) enable the delivery of IoT applications through cloud-based platforms on a utility-based pay-as-you-go model [4] enabling sensing as a service; (E) facilitate the creation of information services based on the collected sensor data using the IoT middleware and cloud infrastructure provided or available.

The OpenIoT project's main outcome is the Open Source platform with the same name [7]. OpenIoT can be seen as the main vehicle for realising the semantic interoperability in IoT. The OpenIoT platform representation is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Figure 2: The OpenIoT platform implementing the IoT Stack

The OpenIoT platform [8] is available at https://github.com/OpenIotOrg/openiot/, which has already attracted several IoT researchers, developers and open source contributors including industry and standards organisations.

Experiments and M2M Trials following IoT Stack design

IoT use cases are implemented in different areas, including Smart Cities, Smart Manufacturing, Smart Agriculture (Agrifood) Sector and Assisted Living use cases. However the big challenge across all of them is to demonstrate the analytics performed on live sensor streams acquired through the IoT platform(s) and here is where the OpenIoT platform following the IoT Stack is focused.

In smart cities, for example, solutions are focused on urban crowd sensing, an example is air quality monitoring in order to monitor particular densely populated city areas, both in time and space, to understand air pollution dynamics and its impact on human health.

In manufacturing plants IoT is a real dynamic scenario where large numbers of sensors are installed in order to monitor production processes. As reference, mid-sized plants are likely to comprise many hundreds of sensors of different types and for various purposes. Sensors generate a great volume of information, while they are associated with an always-increasing rate of information.

In smart agriculture networks of wireless sensor nodes collecting information over a field of experimental crops is the best representation of how IoT technology and associated systems can be deployed for analysing growth and performance.

In the above use cases the OpenIoT framework has been tested for capturing, storing and processing IoT sensor data. Figure 3 depicts the OpenIoT Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and the core functions: Authenticate users into OpenIoT platform, Discover available sensors, Configure new sensors technology, Define IoT services based on flow diagrams to Visualize and Present analytical results and finally statistical graphs as part of an IoT-designed Monitor service. OpenIoT has been used to semantically interconnect technology and leverage diverse data into a single format by means of enabling data analytics [5].

Figure 3

Figure 3: The OpenIoT IDE (integrated development environment)

The IoT stack focuses on leveraging service delivery models and interoperability in the Internet of Things. IoT Stack was designed following the service requirements and lifecycle formulations for connected devices. The main characteristics and functional layers of the IoT Stack are described following the principles for interoperability in the framework of the OpenIoT project.

The design and specification of M2M/IoT use cases and services using the OpenIoT stack and the implemented middleware is optimal for real-time analysis and particularly for sensor data acquisition, transformation management and sharing. By the nature of the design of the IoT solutions enabling IoT data analytics for IoT systems intelligent servers can be updated and enhanced for real-time data processing.

Acknowledgments
Part of this work has been carried out in the scope of the project ICT OpenIoT Project, which is co-funded by the European Commission under seventh framework program, contract number FP7-ICT-2011-7-287305-OpenIoT and the Insight Centre for Data analytics with Grant No. 12/RC/2289 (Insight).

References

[1] Martin Serrano, Hoan Nguyen M. Quoc, Manfred Hauswirth, Wei Wang, Payam Barnaghi, Philippe Cousin "Open Services for IoT Cloud Applications in the Future Internet" procs of the 2nd IEEE WoWMoM 2013 workshop on the IoT and Smart Objects (IoT-SoS 2013),http://www2.ing.unipi.it/iot-sos2013, Spain.

[2] Martin Serrano, Hoan Nguyen M. Quoc, Danh Le Phuoc, Manfred Hauswirth, John Soldatos, Nikos Kefalakis, Prem Jayaraman and Arkady Zaslavsky "Defining the Stack for Service Delivery Models and Interoperability in the Internet of Things: A Practical Case With OpenIoT-VDK", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications - JSAC, 2015.

[3] John Soldatos; Nikos Kefalakis; Martin Serrano; Manfred Hauswirth "Design principles for utility-driven services and cloud-based computing modelling for the Internet of Things" Journal: Int. J. of Web and Grid Services, 2014 Vol.10, pp.139–167 DOI: 10.1504/IJWGS.2014.060254.

[4] Anh Le Tuan, Hoan N. Mau Quoc, Martin Serrano, Manfred Hauswirth, John Soldatos, Thanasis Papaioannou, Karl Aberer "Global Sensor Modeling and Constrained Application Methods Enabling Cloud-Based Open Space Smart Services" IEEE 9th Intl Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing (IEEE UIC 2012).

[5] Myriam Leggieri, Martin Serrano, Manfred Hauswirth "Data Modeling for Cloud-Based Internet-of-Things Systems" IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things 2012.

[6] Martín Serrano, et al. "A Self-Organizing Architecture for Cloud by means of Infrastructure Performance and Event Data", 2013 IEEE Cloudcom, Bristol, UK.ISBN: 978-0-7695-5095-4, ISSN: 2330-2186

[7] Serrano, J. Martin. "Applying Semantics and Data Interoperability Principles for Cloud Management Systems". Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. LNCS 7092, Subseries: Innovations in Intelligent Machines-4. Colette Faucher and Lakhmi Jain (Eds.) 2013, Vol.514, 2014, pp 257-277, Springer Publishers. Print ISBN: 978-3-319-01865-2.

[8] Serrano, J. Martin "Applied Ontology Engineering in Cloud Services, Networks and Management Systems", Springer Publishers, March 2012. Hardcover, p.p. 222 pages, ISBN-10: 1461422353, ISBN-13: 978-1461422358.

 


 

Marin SerranoMartin Serrano is an ICT expert with more than 12 years experience in industry and applied research, at the technical and management levels, within a wide range of Pan-European international collaborative research Projects and also with experience on large scale Integrated Platforms experimentation. Dr. Martin Serrano is a lecturer at the National University of Ireland with a worldwide-recognized activity using semantics for communications and management systems, sensor-networks and cloud computing. Dr. Serrano has co-authored more than 70 papers published in international journals and conference proceedings and is the author of an academic book and several book chapters. Dr. Serrano serves as a reviewer in major journals (e.g., IEEE Wireless Magazine, IEEE Communications Magazine, IEEE Transactions in Communications). Dr. Serrano's contributions in smart cities and the Internet of Things have been adopted and included in Santa Clara University (SCU Silicon Valley area), the California Polytechnic State University (CalPoly), Monash University in Australia and the National University of Ireland (NUI-Maynooth) academic programs. Dr. Serrano was Senior Engineer Supervisor at Panasonic-AKME at the Product Design Engineering department. He was also Research Intern at National/Panasonic in Japan. Dr. Serrano is an active member of IEEE (Computer and Communication Societies). martin.serrano@insight-centre.org.

 

John SoldatosJohn Soldatos is with Athens Information Technology, where he is currently an Associate Professor. He has technically participated in a number of research projects, which were co-funded by the EU. He has also had an active involvement in several (more than eight) projects of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology. Dr. Soldatos has experience in several enterprise IT projects (including high-budget integrated projects), where he worked for leading Greek enterprises. Dr. Soldatos has lectured extensively in NTUA, AIT, while he has also given a host of invited lectures to other Greek and international universities. He has also conducted numerous corporate training courses (over 30 seminars) with topics relating to implementation and technical management of large scale IT projects (main topics being J2EE, Oracle, RUP/XP). Dr. Soldatos has co-authored more than 120 papers published in international journals (more than 30) and conference proceedings. Dr. Soldatos serves as a reviewer in major journals (e.g., Journal of Grid Computing, IEEE Communications Magazine, IEEE Communications Surveys), while he has also served as organizing chair, tutorial chair, and technical programme committee member in a host of related conferences. jsol@ait.gr.

 

 

Comments

2015-09-13 @ 12:02 PM by Elsayed, Khaled

Maybe some discussion/comparison on openIoT vs oneM2M would have been very useful. Most importantly: are they tackling the same issues or complementary to each other?



 

oneM2M: A Bridge over IoT Waters

Omar Elloumi
September 8, 2015

 

The development of Machine to Machine (M2M) communications and the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuing at pace. The two are intrinsically linked and depending on your definition, M2M is basically becoming acknowledged as the communications layer of the IoT. The amount of investment into this sector is reaching astonishing proportions. According to a recent announcement by IDC, the internet of things market will grow globally from approximately 655.8 billion USD in 2014 to 1.7 trillion USD in 2020. McKinsey recently predicted that the total economic impact of the IoT could be as much as 11.1 trillion USD per year by 2025.

However this isn’t just a US market. According to an article in the Guardian, the British Prime Minister David Cameron confirmed the UK Government were making £45m available for internet of things research in the UK, as well as £1m grants for European companies developing related products. The Financial Times reported on how French companies are successfully innovating for the internet of things.

The reality is that M2M is in fact already out there and has been in a relatively modest form for many years, although current levels will seem like the tip of the iceberg in a few years' time. Take up of the pace predicted can only happen if the various layers of development – or islands of connectivity – can properly talk to each other via a platform and utilise the data being exchanged between them.

Global standards initiative

Leading the challenge to deliver this platform is the global standards initiative oneM2M, whose remit covers the requirements, architecture, API specifications, security and interoperability for M2M and IoT technologies.

The M2M / IoT market is very fragmented, with some growth projections being scaled back and of course this is to be expected when you consider the choices facing potential investors in M2M. They need to first pick or guess which technology ecosystems will be winners before choosing one. At best that slows down investment, at worst it discourages it.

This fragmented nature of the M2M market led to the creation of oneM2M, an alliance of standards organisations looking to develop a single horizontal platform for the exchange and sharing of data among all applications. The organisation is creating a distributed software layer which will facilitate the unification by providing a framework for interworking with different technologies and between applications.

oneM2M has recently completed its first release of 10 specifications, all of which are available for free from the oneM2M website (http://www.onem2m.org/), and have also been republished by the partner standards organisations. These specifications cover requirements, a functional architecture, including reference points and interfaces, a set of core APIs across these interfaces, and mappings to commonly used M2M/IoT industry protocols. Moving on from there, in the second release due within the next 12-18 months, there will be further enhancements to the security model already introduced in Release 1, and crucial data abstraction and semantics capabilities will be further developed.

oneM2M certainly has the pedigree and global reach to successfully encourage IoT and M2M usage. Founded in 2012 by seven of the world’s leading ICT standards bodies (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC), covering most regions of the globe: USA, Europe, China, Japan and Korea, and recently joined by an Indian standards body (TSDSI), it also operates in collaboration with groups such as the Broadband Forum, HGI, Continua, OMA, NextGenM2M Alliance and GlobalPlatform. It now has over 200 members with a mix of operators, system integrators, M2M specialists, device manufacturers, universities and research bodies and is now regarded as the leading global standardisation body for both M2M and the IoT.

 


 

Omar ElloumiDr. Omar Elloumi is Head of M2M and Smart Grid standards within Alcatel-Lucent CTO. He is the chair of oneM2M Technical Plenary after having led the oneM2M Architecture working group delivering the first release of oneM2M specifications.

Dr. Elloumi joined Alcatel-Lucent in 1999 and held several positions including research, strategy and system architecture. He holds a Ph. D. degree in computer science and served on the ATM Forum and IPSphere Forum Board of Directors. Dr. Elloumi is co-editor of books on M2M communications and Internet of Things published in 2012. He is also involved in program committees of several international conferences on M2M and IoT and served as Guest Editor for IEEE Communications Magazine feature topic on IoT/M2M.

 

 

Internet of Things and the 5th Generation Mobile Network

Roberto Minerva
September 8, 2015

 

The definition of the next generation of mobile networks is at a very preliminary stage and there is no consistent and shared view about its architecture and technical aspects. In this early stage it is important to define the goals and requirements of the future infrastructure. A very detailed set of requirements has been put forward from the perspective of telecom operators.

What 5G is …

The definition of the next generation of mobile networks will not be incremental (simple technological improvements), instead the goal is to position the 5G network as a powerful enabler for many industries and at the center stage of many future business and technological transformations. The 5G network aims at providing a significant and diversified capacity and intelligent functions to a large set of classes of applications.

The move is from a mobile broadband network (e.g., 4G) to a support network very similar in certain characteristics and capabilities to the fixed network. A few foreseen features give a flavor of the differences:

  • More than 50 Mbps everywhere
  • Support to dense areas and crowds (up to 150,000 people/km2)
  • Support to fast moving vehicles (cars, high speed trains, and airplanes)
  • Coverage of indoor areas with shared bandwidth of up to 1Gbps
  • Ultra low-latency (latency less than 1ms) and ultra-high reliability
  • Resilience and support to traffic surges
  • Support to massive low-cost/long-range/low-power machine type communications
  • And much more.

These requirements have been derived in [1] by the analysis of different use cases ranging from "pervasive video" to "broadcast video", from low-power IoT applications up to eHealth (remote surgery in disaster areas) and industrial internet, from "broadband access in rural areas" up to broadband availability in densely populated areas such as stadiums. These requirements seem to be somewhat contradictory; however they have been proposed in order to support possible usages of the future network.

From a technological point of view, the differences with the current and near future deployment of the 4G networks are huge. From the need to deploy more antennas and new frequencies in order to support strong communication capabilities, to heterogeneous radio access technologies infrastructure, up to a strongly revisited control and service architecture supported by more recent approaches.

The approach adopted in order to support many different and sometimes contrasting requirements is to allocate network resources flexibly according to a set of well understood and supported use cases. IoT is one of those, but it should be noted that IoT is a very large application domain and some IoT services could require aggregated functionalities and network characteristics beyond those considered for massive low-cost, low-powered, long-range IoT applications.

The vision for 5G then is one of a set of disparate resources and network functions that can be aggregated and composed flexibly and on demand in order to sustain different use case requirements.

These characteristics will be supported by a kind of IT approach based on:

  • Separation of hardware from software with a predominance of general purpose equipment and introduction of open source solutions in the network
  • Definition and exposure of application programming interfaces (APIs) for controlling resources and functions (moving standardization from protocol definition to APIs)
  • Heavy usage of software defined networking interfaces and solutions -
  • High level of virtualization of resources
  • Autonomics and self-organization for dealing with the number and complexity of management of the new infrastructure.

Particular importance is attached to the concept of architectural slicing, i.e., the 5G software architecture should be sufficiently flexible to allow the creation of abstract layers comprising virtualized resources and functions capable of supporting the identified use cases and related applications.

Figure 1 represents the slicing concept (source [1]).

Figure 1

Figure 1: The concept of slice in [1]

The set of basic supporting functionalities provided by the network includes identification, authorization and security features. The massive scenario refers essentially to a use case that addresses metering deployments, i.e., a large set of sensors that do not have stringent mobility and bandwidth requirements.

These network functionalities could be organized according to a preferred architecture for IoT (e.g., oneM2M) developed according to the requirements and the business goals of the telecommunications industry.

… and how IoT fits in it

Some applications may fit perfectly with the "network centric approach" and they could even be supported by standards [2].

In reality IoT applications are many and varied. Many of them rely strongly on terminal and device capabilities whereas the network is essentially a pipe. Services will be provided in the terminals themselves or in specialized data centers outside of the network. Others may have very stringent requirements in terms of latency and high availability and possibly they are not going to rely on the functionalities provided by the mobile network. This network will be used for communication between different remote industrial or medical sites, while the real-time communications are supported and guaranteed locally in order to fully guarantee critical processes. In addition, many applications will combine the functions envisaged by different slices (e.g., services based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications and using data/information from the sensored infrastructure of a smart city) in order to create new classes of services. Applications and service logic should not be forced to reside in the network. Typically, and in alignment with the end-to-end principle [3], intelligence accumulates at the edges of the network. So the network should deliver only those services that are better supported by and optimized in the network, leaving other functionalities at the edge of the network. Eventually, services will not be created, managed and executed on top of the network (at the service layer) but directly in edge data centers or terminals owned by service providers and users. They may want to use and program relevant network functions. Figure 2 depicts this arrangement.

Figure 2

Figure 2: Slicing and allocation of services and applications

As said some services could find their way into the service layer of the operators. Of paramount importance, in the case of IoT, is to understand which new network functionalities will need to be implemented.

A good example of these new functionalities is the PubSub communication paradigm [4] that is characterizing part of the IoT development. This functionality could be usefully implemented within the network at the aggregation routing level. Figure 3 illustrates the functions.

Figure 3

Figure 3: A PubSub engine realized within the 5G infrastructure

The network could manage the subscriptions to event generators in a secure way, guaranteeing privacy and trust. Events could be aggregated within the network and dispatched in an optimized manner to the subscribers. Event generators could publicize their availability as a general service of the infrastructure. In addition the network could store copies of the events, implementing or enabling big data analytics to several users of the services.

The relationship between 5G and IoT will be fruitful and rich if the right functionalities will be implemented at the right place. There is no doubt that some new network functionalities (and some processing and storage) will be needed within the network, but the internet has shown that any functionalities will aggregate in terminals and servers outside of the network. It is important to create a communications infrastructure that is flexible and lean and that offers the right capabilities. A lot of work and specifications remain to be done to reach a viable architecture able to satisfy the requirements of an ever more complex ecosystem such as the one behind the IoT.

 

References

1. Next Generation Mobile Network Alliance, "5G White Paper-Executive Version." White Paper, December (2014) available at https://www.ngmn.org/uploads/media/NGMN_5G_White_Paper_V1_0.pdf

2. Swetina, Jorg, Guang Lu, Patricia Jacobs, Francois Ennesser, and JaeSeung Song. "Toward a standardized common m2m service layer platform: Introduction to onem2m." Wireless Communications, IEEE 21, no. 3 (2014): 20-26.

3. Saltzer, Jerome H., David P. Reed, and David D. Clark. "End-to-end arguments in system design." ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS) 2, no. 4 (1984): 277-288 available in http://web3.cs.columbia.edu/~danr/courses/6761/Fall00/week3/e2e.pdf

4. Minerva, Roberto. "From Internet of Things to the Virtual Continuum: An architectural view." In Euro Med Telco Conference (EMTC), 2014, pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2014.

 


 

Roberto MinervaRoberto Minerva holds a PhD in Computer Science and Telecommunications from Telecom Sud Paris, France, and a Master Degree in Computer Science from Bari University, Italy.

Roberto is the Chairman of the IEEE IoT Initiative. It aims at aggregating a large technical community of experts and to leverage resources, knowledge, and skills available in IEEE in order to foster the research and innovation in several IoT fields.

Roberto is in the Research Coordination group in Telecom Italia Lab, where he is currently involved in research activities related to SDN, NFV, 5G, Big Data, architecture for IoT, and ICT technologies for leveraging new business models. He is author of several papers published in international conferences, books and magazines.

 

 

Comments

2015-09-13 @ 11:56 AM by Elsayed, Khaled

Nice article Roberto. It would be nice to define what CP/UP is referring to in the article. Architectural slicing is good but too much abstraction can make things a bit complex for supposedly simple nodes that perform a simple function.